650th Anniversary of the Foundation of the City of Kaluga
the mirror field of the disc bears a relief image of the National Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation, over it along the rim there is the semicircular inscription ‘РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ’ (RUSSIAN FEDERATION) framed on both sides by doubled rhombuses, below under the coat of arms there are indications of the precious metal and its fineness on the left and the fine metal content and the mint trade mark on the right, at the bottom in the centre, in three lines, there is an inscription ‘БАНК РОССИИ’ (BANK OF RUSSIA), the denomination of the coin ‘3 РУБЛЯ’ (3 RUBLES), and the year of issue ‘2021 г.’ (2021).
the mirror field of the disc features a relief image of the building of the Konstantin Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics against the background of the images of the panorama of Kaluga and the starry sky; there are inscriptions: ‘КАЛУГА’ (KALUGA) at the top along the rim and ‘650 ЛЕТ’ (650 YEARS) at the bottom.
Designers: E.V. Kramskaya (obverse), A.V. Gnidin (reverse).
Sculptors: A.A. Dolgopolova (obverse), A.N. Bessonov (reverse).
Mint: Saint Petersburg Mint (СПМД).
Edge: 300 corrugations.
Kaluga was first mentioned in the charter of the Lithuanian prince Olgerd in 1371. This year is considered the founding date of the city. In 1389, it finally became part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. As a watch outpost, a fortress city built on the Oka River, Kaluga became an outpost of the Moscow state, an obstacle to foreign raids from the south and west.
In 1740, the industrialist Evdokim Demidov laid the dam and the ironworks. This year can be considered the beginning of industrial production in Kaluga.
Being located at the crossroads of busy horse-drawn roads and water ways, Kaluga reached the peak of its development in the 18th-19th centuries, becoming a large industrial and trade centre. However, following the transition of the national fleet to steam engines, the gradual shallowing of the Oka River and the termination of river navigation on it, Kaluga found itself away from active routes and turned into a country town.
The rapid construction of industrial facilities in the city began during the years of the Soviet power. Many flagships of the national mechanical engineering appeared in Kaluga and launched their industrial output. Almost all of them continue to be the city-forming enterprises of Kaluga.
On 5 July 1944, the Kaluga Region was formed, and the city of Kaluga became its administrative centre.